# Put and call option contract

Option values vary with the value of the underlying instrument over time. The price of the call contract must reflect the "likelihood" or chance of the call finishing in-the-money. The call contract price generally will be higher when the contract has more time to expire except in cases when a significant dividend is present and when the underlying financial instrument shows more volatility.

Determining this value is one of the central functions of financial mathematics. The most common method used is the Black—Scholes formula. Importantly, the Black-Scholes formula provides an estimate of the price of European-style options. Adjustment to Call Option: When a call option is in-the-money i. Some of them are as follows:. Similarly if the buyer is making loss on his position i.

A call option , often simply labeled a "call", is a financial contract between two parties, the buyer and the seller of this type of option. The seller or "writer" is obligated to sell the commodity or financial instrument to the buyer if the buyer so decides. The buyer pays a fee called a premium for this right. The term "call" comes from the fact that the owner has the right to "call the stock away" from the seller.

Option values vary with the value of the underlying instrument over time. The price of the call contract must reflect the "likelihood" or chance of the call finishing in-the-money. The call contract price generally will be higher when the contract has more time to expire except in cases when a significant dividend is present and when the underlying financial instrument shows more volatility.

Determining this value is one of the central functions of financial mathematics. The most common method used is the Black—Scholes formula. Importantly, the Black-Scholes formula provides an estimate of the price of European-style options.

On completion of the assignment, the third party will step into the shoes of the buyer as if it were the original buyer under the call option deed. The third party and the seller then proceed with the transaction in accordance with the terms of the call option deed. Nominations A buyer may also be entitled to appoint one or more third parties as a nominee to exercise the call option on behalf of the buyer.

The appointment of a nominee is different to an assignment where the buyer assigns its rights under the call option deed. If a nominee does exercise the call option, the contract which comes into existence will be between the nominee and the seller, instead of between the buyer and the seller. When a put option or a call option is exercised, stamp duty becomes payable by the buyer as it normally would for a standard conveyance ie, on exchange of contracts. Stamp duty implications also arise when assigning an option or appointing a nominee to exercise an option.

The stamp duty liability can be significant and specialist stamp duty advice should be sought if an assignment or nomination is considered. The above is a brief summary of some of the main matters an option deed should contain. However, there are many more considerations to take into account. It is important that an option deed is tailored to your role in the transaction and also the outcome that you want to achieve.

Swaab Attorneys' property team have in depth knowledge and experience in acting for buyers, owners groups and sellers on put and call option transactions. We have recently acted for a number of clients who have utilised put and call options to acquire an interest in multi-titled sites or market an interest in multi-titled sites for development, DA approval and assignment.